• Zaznavanje plina

Sistem za zaznavanje plina se uporablja za odkrivanje prisotnosti škodljivih in nevarnih plinov in hlapov.

Sistem za zaznavanje plina vključuje sprejetje ukrepov za zgodnje odkrivanje prisotnosti škodljivih in nevarnih plinov in hlapov v nedovoljenih koncentracijah v različnih prostorih ter opozorilo in opozorilo na take pojave. Takšne sisteme je treba vgraditi v kotle, ki uporabljajo plin, težji od plina, plinske naprave, javne garaže, kuhinje, kjer se plin uporablja kot energija, in na drugih območjih, kjer lahko pride do škodljivih ali vnetljivih plinov.

Takšni sistemi so v bistvu sestavljeni iz elementov za zaznavanje plina (detektorjev), centralnih procesnih in krmilnih enot ter signalno-signalnih naprav. Zaznavanje plinov se izvede z različnimi senzorji, ki so nameščeni na mestih, kjer se pričakuje, da se takšni plini pojavljajo, in so razdeljeni glede na vrsto plina, ki so jim namenjeni. Ločimo med strupenimi in eksplozivnimi ali vnetljivimi plini.

Pri merjenju koncentracije eksplozivnih plinov in hlapov (acetilen, metan, propan, vodik, CO, aceton, etil-metilni alkohol) je treba biti pozoren na spodnjo mejo eksplozivnosti (minimalna koncentracija vnetljivih plinov v zraku, na katerem pride do eksplozije), tako da signal Stanje alarma oddajamo še preden ga dosežemo z različnimi metodami, med katerimi so najbolj znane:

  • katalitično (žarilni grelec; prihod plinov poveča temperaturo, kar povzroča spremembe upora, in to merimo z merilnim mostom).
  • elektrokemična (plin v senzorju povzroči oksidacijo; to povzroči spremembo električnih magnitud na detektorju - tok je neposredno sorazmeren koncentraciji plina).
  • infrardeči (s segrevanjem plina se tlak dvigne in membrana se premakne, registrira IC detektor).
  • polprevodnik (uporabite polprevodniške elemente).

Za merjenje zdravja škodljivih plinov in hlapov (CO, CO2, vodikov klorid, dušikov oksid, amoniak, ...) se najpogosteje uporabljajo elektrokemične, infrardeče in polprevodniške metode.

Posebna pozornost je namenjena ogljikovemu monoksidu (CO), ki ga pogosto imenujejo "tihi morilec", ki je posledica nepopolnega zgorevanja brez zadostnega kisika. 

Relativna gostota plina v primerjavi z zrakom je zelo pomembna za pravilno postavitev detektorja plina. Pri težjih plinih so detektorji nameščeni približno 20 cm od tal, pri lažjih plinih pa tla. V primeru plinov, ki vplivajo na ljudi, je vdihavanje smiselno. Pri prilagajanju je treba upoštevati zračne tokove, oblike prostora, delovna mesta.

Poleg alarmnega sistema za plin obstajajo samostojne naprave za zaznavanje plina, ki so cenovno ugodnejše in primerne za večino stanovanjskih aplikacij. Takšni detektorji so običajno opremljeni s svetlobnimi in zvočnimi signali (bliskavice in sirene), ki signalizirajo nevarnost tistih, ki so prisotni v prostoru, poleg tega pa jih je mogoče povezati z različnimi alarmi, kot so GSM ali telefonski alarmi in tako oddajo informacije o alarmih na želeno telefonsko številko. Alarmno opozorilo in alarme (zvočna in svetlobna opozorila) izvaja centralna enota, ki izvaja druge izvršilne funkcije, kot je nadzor ventilatorja za nadaljnje prezračevanje onesnaženega prostora, izklop posameznih naprav in podobno.

Zaznavanje plina

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