Zadnje novice

09.10.2013

Videoposnetek kot dokaz v kazenskem postopku (Tehtaje med pravico do zasebnosti in pravico do osebne varnosti oškodovanca)

 

1. primer (Sodba I Ips 375/2007)


Če je obdolženčevo ravnanje zaznala vidna videokamera pred oškodovančevo hišo, obdolženec ne more uživati varstva zasebnosti, sajvideonadzor zagotavlja pravico do osebne varnosti oškodovanca inza snemanje ni potrebno soglasje oseb, ki se znajdejo v nadzorovanem območju.

Obdolženčev zagovornik zatrjuje, da je videoposnetek pridobljen s kršitvijo obsojenčeve pravice do zasebnosti, zaradi česar bi ga bilo kot nedovoljenega izločiti iz dokaznega gradiva. Pri preizkusu vložnikovih trditev je treba najprej ugotoviti, ali je do posega v pravico do zasebnosti sploh prišlo, in šele nato, ali je poseg protipraven ali ne. V konkretnem primeru imamo opraviti s položajem, v katerem druga ob drugo trčita dve ustavno varovani praviciČlovekove pravice ne uživajo neomejenega varstvaomejene so s človekovimi pravicami drugih in v primerih, ko to določa zakon (tretji odstavek 15. člena Ustave). Na vprašanje, kdaj je zasebnosti treba zagotoviti pravno varstvo, nudi odgovor t.i. koncept pričakovane zasebnosti. Zasebnost, tako v prostorskem kot v funkcionalnem pogledu, bo varovana takrat oziroma dokler bo posameznik tako pričakovanje izrazil na navzven zaznaven način in kolikor bo to pričakovanje objektivno upravičljivo. Tako pričakovanje ni objektivno upravičljivo takrat, kadar stoji posameznikovi pravici do zasebnostinasproti druga ustavno varovana pravica in ki ji je treba dati prednosti

Vrhovno sodišče šteje za pravilno mnenje višjega sodišča, da bi zahteva po soglasju oseb, ki se znajdejo v nadzorovanem območju,nesorazmerno posegla v uresničevanje pravice do osebne varnosti. Njihova zasebnost in pravica do svobodnega odločanja v lastnih stvareh je v zadostni meri varovana s tem, da se posameznik nadzora zaveda in temu prilagodi svoje ravnanje

V takih okoliščinah se mora po presoji Vrhovnega sodišča varstvo obsojenčeve zasebnosti umakniti pravici do osebnega varstva oškodovanca.

 
 

2. primer (Sodba I Ips 43776/2010-50)


Z namestitvijo video kamere tako, da je omogočala nadzor nad parkirnim mestom v garažni hiši, kjer je imela oškodovanka parkirano svoje vozilo, oškodovanka ni posegla v zasebnost obsojenca, ker obsojenec na tem mestu ni mogel uživati varstva zasebnosti.

Oškodovanka je v letu 2001 z namenom varovanja svojega premoženja in izsleditve storilca, v garažni hiši namestila video kamero tako, da je omogočala nadzor nad njenim parkirnim mestom v garažni hiši, to je nad mestom kjer je imela oškodovanka parkirano svoje vozilo. Ob tako ugotovljenih konkretnih okoliščinah Vrhovno sodišče soglaša s presojo sodišč v izpodbijani pravnomočni sodbi, da s takšno namestitvijo kamere oškodovanka ni posegla v zasebnost obsojenca, ker obsojenec na tem mestu, ki ga je pokrivala video kamera, ni mogel uživati varstva zasebnosti. Video kamera, ki je bila nameščena nad prednjim delom oškodovankinega vozila, je bila nameščena tako, da je bila vidna in opazna vsakomur, ki se je v garažni hiši približal parkiranemu oškodovankinemu vozilu, kar nenazadnje izhaja tudi iz zagovora obsojenca, video nadzor pa je obsegal le nadzor nad vozilom parkiranim na oškodovankinem točno določenem parkirnem mestu v garažni hiši, kar ustreza namenu zagotavljanja pravice do varnosti oškodovanke (ki obsega tudi varnost posameznikovega premoženja) in se mora v takem primeruvarstvo obsojenčeve zasebnosti umakniti pravici do osebnega varstva oškodovanke.
 
 

3. primer (Sodba I Ips 5909/2011-170)


Oškodovanka je obsojenca na skrivaj fotografirala na javnem kraju v obrambi svoje pravice do osebne varnosti, ki ji jo zagotavlja 34. člen URS. V primeru kolizije dveh ustavnih pravic (pravice do zasebnosti iz 35. člena URS in pravice do osebne varnosti iz 34. člena URS) je treba z uporabo načela sorazmernosti ugotoviti, katera izmed njih ima prednost. Fotografiranje storilca kaznivega dejanja, tik preden je začel izvrševati kaznivo dejanje, je bilo v konkretnem primeru nedvomno primeren ukrep, ki je preprečil nadaljevanje kaznivih dejanj nad oškodovanko, legitimnega cilja, osebne varnosti oškodovanke, pa se ni dalo doseči z blažjim sredstvom. Fotografiranje storilca kaznivega dejanja ter posredovanje fotografij organom pregona je v konkretnem primeru tudi v skladu s tehtanjem pomena cilja ter težo posega.
 
Vir: http://www.pravnitelefon.si/pravne-novice/videoposnetek-kot-dokaz-v-kazenskem-postopku-tehtaje-med-pra

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The Criminal Code of the Republic of Slovenia - the Penal Code  
(Official Gazette of RS, no. 63/94 dated 13. 10. 1994)



Unduly eavesdropping and sound recording 148th Article



(1) Whoever without special equipment to eavesdrop a conversation or a statement that it is not intended, or may be an audio recording, or whoever such talk or such declaration directly transferred to a third party, or is this track playing, or otherwise allow to be with him directly note shall be punished by a fine or imprisonment of up to one year. 
(2) The same Whoever sound recording it intended to confidential statement of another without his consent in order to make such a statement abused, or who provide this statement directly transferred to a third party or it plays such a clip or it otherwise allow to be acquainted with him directly. 
(3) If the offense from the first or second paragraph of this article officer with abuse of office or official duties, or attempts to do so shall be punished with imprisonment from three months to five years. 
(4) Prosecution for the offense specified in the first paragraph of this Article shall be initiated by a request for action under the second paragraph on the private lawsuit.

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